Identifier Name Type Description In Out Syn. Xref
CONSO00001 microtubule-binding region domain The motif in the MAPT protein where microtubule binding repeats 4 1 1 1
CONSO00002 tubulin-binding repeat 1 domain position 569_591 of canonical isoform of MAPT protein 0 1 2 1
CONSO00003 tubulin-binding repeat 2 domain position 592_621 of canonical isoform of MAPT protein 1 1 2 1
CONSO00004 tubulin-binding repeat 3 domain position 623_653 of canonical isoform of MAPT protein 1 1 2 1
CONSO00005 tubulin-binding repeat 4 domain position 654_685 of canonical isoform of MAPT protein 0 1 2 1
CONSO00006 Tau aggregates cellular component Tau (MAPT) in its aggregated form (as Paired Helical Filaments (PHFs) or Straight Filaments (SF)) contains 5–9 moles of phosphate/ mole of the protein, defining it as hyper phosphorylated 1 1 0 0
CONSO00007 hyperphosphorylation post-translational modification An excessive phosphorylation (see GO:0006468) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00008 GAL80TS exposure temperature-sensitive allele of GAL80 (tub-GAL80TS) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00009 Tau oligomers cellular component CAST is known to prevent oligomerization of Tau (Rao et al., 2014) and α-synuclein (Diepenbroek et al. 2014) and inhibit reactive gliosis (Rao et al., 2008) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00010 LY293002 chemical a typo appearing in pubmed:23950935 for the specific PI3-kinase inhibitor that is actually named LY294002 0 1 148 6
CONSO00011 LPLI exposure Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) is a non-damage physical therapy 0 0 1 0
CONSO00012 Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion pathology Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is one of the causes of vascular dementia (VaD) and is also an etiological factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) 0 0 1 0
CONSO00013 Mori Fructus ethanol extract chemical mixture ethanol extracted from Mori Fructus, a well-known traditional herbal medicine, food, and dietary supplement 0 0 1 0
CONSO00014 tunneling nanotubes cellular component filamentous-actin-containing membranous structures that bridge and connect cells 0 0 2 0
CONSO00015 amyloidogenesis biological process production of amyloid 0 0 0 0
CONSO00016 alpha-synuclein aggregates cellular component alpha-synuclein (SNCA) aggregate in fibrillar or oligomeric forms, usually found in Lewy bodies 0 1 0 0
CONSO00017 huntingtin aggregates cellular component huntingtin (HTT) protein fragments aggregations 0 1 0 0
CONSO00018 amyloid-beta aggregates cellular component aggregation of amyloid-beta fragments of the APP protein 0 1 0 0
CONSO00019 SEN-1269 chemical A tau aggregation inhibitor 0 1 21 4
CONSO00020 MLS000034832 chemical A tau aggregation inhibitor 0 1 27 4
CONSO00021 caprospinol chemical A tau aggregation inhibitor 0 1 18 4
CONSO00022 amyloid-beta oligomers cellular component Small aggregates of amyloid-beta 0 0 0 0
CONSO00023 amyloid-beta 42 oligomers cellular component Amyloid-beta oligomers composed specifically of amyloid-beta 42 0 0 0 0
CONSO00024 APP C-terminally truncated carboxyl-terminal fragments protein fragment C-terminally truncated carboxyl-terminal fragments (CTFs) of APP 0 0 0 0
CONSO00025 A2B5 antigen epitope A2B5 antigen is a cell surface ganglioside epitope expressed on developing thymic epithelial cells, oligodendrocyte progenitors, and neuroendocrine cells. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00026 neutral sphingomyelinase enzyme class Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.12, also known as neutral sphingomyelinase, sphingomyelinase, or SMase) is a hydrolase enzyme that is involved in sphingolipid metabolism reactions. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00027 Neurodegeneration pathology Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons. Many neurodegenerative diseases – including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease – occur as a result of neurodegenerative processes. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00028 amyloid-beta derived diffusible ligands cellular component soluble oligomeric forms of the amyloid beta peptide known as amyloid-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs) are the toxic species responsible for neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease. 0 0 1 0
CONSO00029 Hyperamylinemia pathology increased secretion of the pancreatic hormone amylin 0 0 0 0
CONSO00030 APOE e4 genetic variant APOE e4 is a variant of APOE, it's APOE-ε4 (arg112, arg158). 0 0 0 0
CONSO00031 N-AcGIP chemical N-AcGIP is a rat hormone that is an agonist of GIP 0 1 0 0
CONSO00032 Pro3-GIP chemical Pro3-GIP is a rat hormone that is an agonist of GIP 0 1 2 3
CONSO00033 PI3K-Akt signaling pathway pathway PI3K-Akt signaling pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway important in regulating the cell cycle.It is described in KEGG. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00035 Argyrophilic Grain Disease pathology Argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) is an under-recognized, distinct, highly frequent sporadic tauopathy, with a prevalence reaching 31.3% in centenarians. 0 0 1 0
CONSO00036 granulovacuolar degeneration pathology Granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it is defined as electron-dense granules within double membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles. 0 0 1 1
CONSO00037 mitochondrial dysfunction pathology mitochondria function disorder 0 0 0 0
CONSO00038 amyloid-beta fibrils cellular component Insoluble fibrous protein aggregates exhibiting beta sheet structure. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00039 AG73 protein fragment a peptide derived from mouse laminin alpha 1 protein (seq:RKRLQVQLSIRT, chain:2719–2730) 0 0 0 1
CONSO00040 Notch intracellular domain domain Notch intracellular domain is the intracellular region of notch receptor. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00041 YENPTY endocytosis motif (APP) motif YENTY is the endocytosis motif of Amyloid precursor protein. 0 0 1 0
CONSO00042 sAPP-beta protein Soluble amyloid precursor protein 0 0 1 0
CONSO00043 growth factor ? A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation. Usually it is a protein or a steroid hormone. Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes. 0 0 0 2
CONSO00044 3R tau protein isoform family Tau isoforms containing 3 tubulin binding repeats 2 1 0 0
CONSO00045 4R tau protein isoform family Tau isoforms containing 4 tubulin binding repeats 3 1 0 0
CONSO00046 VQIINK motif motif A hexapeptide motif located in the R2, that promotes the formation of PHF 0 1 1 0
CONSO00047 VQIVYK motif motif A hexapeptide motif located in the R3, that promotes the formation of PHF 0 1 1 0
CONSO00048 ghost tangles cellular component Extracellular NFT remains after neuron death, considered to be the last stage of NFT-related pathological activity. 0 1 0 0
CONSO00049 pretangles cellular component Pretangles are cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity in neurons without apparent formation of fibrillary structures. In Alzheimer disease, such tau deposition is considered to represent a premature state prior to fibril formation (AD-pretangles), later to form neurofibrillary tangles and finally ghost tangles. 0 1 0 0
CONSO00050 projection domain domain Corresponding roughly to the N-terminal part of the tau molecule, consisting mainly of acidic residues and containing two distinct alternatively spliced N-terminal inserts. 1 0 1 1
CONSO00051 RAC1b isoform A constitutively active splicing isoform of RAC1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1), first identified in breast and colon cancer. 0 1 0 1
CONSO00052 AP-2 complex protein complex A heterotetrameric adapter protein complex involved in cargo-internalization during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Composed of alpha and beta subunits (large adaptins), mu and sigma subunits (minor adaptins). 0 0 0 1
CONSO00053 Tau isoform F (441 aa) isoform Longest tau isoform in human brain, most commonly used as the conventional tau. 0 2 3 2
CONSO00054 Tau isoform Fetal-tau (352 aa) isoform Human fetal tau isoform. 0 1 3 2
CONSO00055 Tau isoform B (381 aa) isoform Human brain tau isoform, derived from alternative splicing. 0 2 3 2
CONSO00056 Tau isoform D (383 aa) isoform Human brain tau isoform, derived from alternative splicing. 0 2 3 2
CONSO00057 Tau isoform C (410 aa) isoform Human brain tau isoform, derived from alternative splicing. 0 2 3 2
CONSO00058 Tau isoform E (412 aa) isoform Human brain tau isoform, derived from alternative splicing. 0 2 3 2
CONSO00059 Serpin-enzyme complex receptor protein ? 0 0 1 0
CONSO00060 neuroinflammation pathology inflammatory response in the brain and nervous tissue. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00061 neurotoxicity pathology happens when a biological, physical or chemical agent cause any adverse effect on the structure and function of the nerves system. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00062 neurite retraction pathology when the neurite is unable it outgrow and extend 0 0 0 0
CONSO00063 APP695 isoform the APP gene is located on chromosome 21 in humans with three major isoforms arising from alternative splicing [3]. These are APP695, APP751 and APP770 (containing 695, 751, and 770 amino acids, respectively) 0 1 0 1
CONSO00064 APP751 isoform the APP gene is located on chromosome 21 in humans with three major isoforms arising from alternative splicing [3]. These are APP695, APP751 and APP770 (containing 695, 751, and 770 amino acids, respectively) 0 1 0 1
CONSO00065 APP770 isoform the APP gene is located on chromosome 21 in humans with three major isoforms arising from alternative splicing [3]. These are APP695, APP751 and APP770 (containing 695, 751, and 770 amino acids, respectively) 0 1 0 1
CONSO00066 gamma-secretase protein complex gamma-secretase is a high molecular weight complex minimally composed of four components: presenilins (PS), nicastrin, anterior pharynx defective 1 (APH-1), and presenilin enhancer 2 (PEN-2) 0 0 0 1
CONSO00067 sAPP-alpha protein soluble amyloid precursor protein-alpha 0 0 0 0
CONSO00068 Excitotoxicity pathology Excitotoxicity is defined as cell death resulting from the toxic actions of excitatory amino acids 0 0 0 0
CONSO00069 C31 protein fragment a fragment containing the last 31 amino acids of APP (called C31) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00070 Jcasp protein fragment Additional gamma-cleavage further generates the fragment (called Jcasp) containing the region between gamma- and caspase-cleavage sites 0 0 0 0
CONSO00071 AICD domain APP intracellular domain 0 0 0 0
CONSO00072 p83 protein fragment APP alphaCTF and betaCTF are further cleaved by gamma-secretase to generate p83 and Abeta, respectively 0 0 0 0
CONSO00073 APP processing biological process Any protein maturation process achieved by the cleavage of a peptide bond or bonds within a protein (see:GO:0016485) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00074 AβOs cellular component soluble Aβ oligomers 0 0 0 0
CONSO00075 LMW amyloid oligomers cellular component The formation of AβOs starts from alterations in the conformation of monomeric Aβ, resulting in low molecular weight (LMW) dimers and trimers, followed by aggregation to soluble spherical oligomers consisted of 12–24 monomers. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00076 amyloid-beta 40 oligomers cellular component Amyloid-beta oligomers composed specifically of amyloid-beta 40 0 0 0 0
CONSO00077 alternative splicing of APP gene biological process The process of generating multiple mRNA molecules from a given set of exons by differential use of exons from the primary transcript(s) to form multiple mature mRNAs that vary in their exon composition (see:GO:0000380) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00078 E1 domain domain The ectodomains of APP and APLPs have two conserved regions called E1 and E2 (Fig. 1A), both of which have been proposed to contribute to dimerization 0 0 0 0
CONSO00079 E2 domain domain The ectodomains of APP and APLPs have two conserved regions called E1 and E2 (Fig. 1A), both of which have been proposed to contribute to dimerization 0 0 0 0
CONSO00080 P3 peptide protein fragment Cleavage by α-secretase yields the nonamyloidogenic soluble 3-kDa peptide (p3) that does not form amyloid fibrils, whereas cleavage by β-secretase yields the amyloidogenic form Aβ1–40 or the longer, more fibrillogenic Aβ1–42 0 0 0 0
CONSO00081 C99 protein fragment a membrane associated C-terminal fragment consisting of 99 amino acids (C99) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00082 aMCI pathology amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairement is a cognitive dysfunction that is associated with memory deficits 0 0 0 0
CONSO00083 mdMCI pathology multi-domain Mild Cognitive Impairement is a cognitive dysfunction that is associated with more than one cognitive domain 0 0 0 0
CONSO00084 Tau isoform A (316 aa) isoform Human brain tau isoform, derived from alternative splicing. 0 1 0 1
CONSO00085 Tau C3 epitope Tau epitope cleaved at aspartic acid(421). 0 0 0 0
CONSO00086 Tau MN423 epitope Tau epitope truncated at glutamic acid(391). 0 0 0 0
CONSO00087 granular tau oligomers cellular component When the oligomer lengthens, it adapts a beta-sheet structure and transforms into a detergent-insoluble aggregate with granular appearance under Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00088 Tau fibrils cellular component As these granular tau oligomers fuse together, they form tau fibrils, which ultimately form NFTs 0 0 0 0
CONSO00089 dense core plaques cellular component Dense-core plaques are fibrillar deposits of Abeta, showing all the classical properties of amyloid including beta-sheet secondary structure, while diffuse plaques are amorphous deposits 0 0 0 0
CONSO00090 Tau annular protofibrils cellular component A handful of proteins implicated in neurodegenerative diseases have been found to produce pore-like amyloid structures known as annular protofibrils (APFs) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00091 TOC1 antibody monoclonal antibody, named TOC1 (tau oligomeric complex 1), which selectively labels tau dimers and oligomers, but does not label filaments 0 0 0 0
CONSO00092 alpha-synuclein fibrils cellular component fibrillar aggregates of alpha-synuclein, found in Lewy bodies 0 0 0 0
CONSO00093 alpha-synuclein oligomers cellular component oligomeric aggregates of alpha-synuclein 0 0 0 0
CONSO00094 CLR01 protein the Lys-specific molecular tweezer CLR01 has been shown to inhibit aggregation and toxicity of multiple amyloidogenic protein 0 0 0 0
CONSO00095 prefibrillar α-synuclein oligomers cellular component prefibrillar oligomers formed at early stages of α-syn assembly 0 0 0 0
CONSO00096 GA-AGE ? Glyceraldehyde-derived (GA) advanced glycation end products 0 0 0 0
CONSO00097 TGM2 Isoform 3 (349 aa) isoform Short isoform of tissue transglutaminase 0 1 0 1
CONSO00098 KXGS motif motif Conserved Tau phosphorylation motif. Part of the microtubule-binding region, phosphorylation of the serine in these motifs disrupts tau binding to the MT and serves to regulate tau-mediated MT assembly 0 0 0 0
CONSO00099 Corticobasal Degeneration pathology CBD is a late-onset neurodegenerative disease involving the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia, characterized by widespread deposition of hyperphosphorylated 4-repeat tau in neurons and glia, the latter as astrocytic plaques 0 1 0 0
CONSO00100 paired helical filaments cellular component Component of NFT, consisting in a helical arrangement of tau protomers 0 1 0 0
CONSO00101 straight filaments cellular component Component of NFT and ultrastructural polymorph of PHFs, with an assymetrical arrangement of the tau protomers 0 1 0 0
CONSO00102 Alz50 antibody Murine IgM-class monoclonal antibody recognizing a specific conformational epitope adopted by tau during PHF formation 0 0 0 0
CONSO00103 O-GlcNAcylation post-translational modification A non-canonical glycosylation involving the attachment of single O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moieties to serine and threonine residues of cytoplasmic, nuclear, and mitochondrial proteins 0 0 0 0
CONSO00104 glycation post-translational modification The non-enzymatic reaction between the electrophilic carbonyl groups of a reducing sugar and the free amino groups of tau amino acids (especially of basic lysine or arginine residues) leading to the formation of a ketoamine (Amadori product), an intermediate of AGE synthesis. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00105 nitration post-translational modification Incorporation of a nitrogen dioxide (NO2) group in tyrosine residues (mostly) of proteins forming 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). A biomarker of cell, tissue and systemic nitrosative stress. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00106 polyamination post-translational modification The reaction of polyamination by transglutaminases (TGs) involves a glutamine (Q) as acyl donor and a lysine (K) as acyl acceptor. It generates a (gamma)-glutamyl-(epsilon)-lysine isopeptide bond that causes protein cross-linking 0 0 0 0
CONSO00107 formylation post-translational modification The addition of a formyl functional group usually at the epsilon amino group of Lys residues 0 0 0 0
CONSO00108 Syndecan Family protein family IterPro:IPR001050 0 0 0 0
CONSO00109 Bacterial invasion biological process The process of bacteria invading a cell 0 0 0 0
CONSO00110 dopamine homeostasis biological process Dopmine secrete in a homeostatic way 0 0 0 0
CONSO00111 PINK1-Park pathway pathway The PINK1-Parkin pathway promotes both mitophagy and selective respiratory chain turnover in vivo.pubmed:23509287 0 0 0 0
CONSO00112 Glutamate excitotoxicity biological process The excitotoxicity of Glutamate 0 0 0 0
CONSO00113 mitochondrial homeostasis biological process The interplay between mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00114 ER mitochondria interorganellar crosstalk biological process reference:pubmed:22577383 0 0 0 0
CONSO00115 Mitochondrial pathway pathway reference:pubmed:22399422 0 0 0 0
CONSO00116 oxidative protein folding biological process Oxidative protein folding is a process that is responsible for the formation of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins. The driving force behind this process is a redox reaction, in which electrons pass between several proteins and finally to a terminal electron acceptor. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00117 mitochondrial motility biological process The motility of mitochondria 0 0 0 0
CONSO00118 TIM/TOM complex protein complex The TIM/TOM complex is a protein complex in cellular biochemistry which translocates proteins produced from nuclear DNA through the mitochondrial membrane for use in oxidative phosphorylation. Only 13 proteins necessary for a mitochondrion are actually coded in mitochondrial DNA. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00119 mitochondrial aggregation biological process The aggregation of mitochondria 0 0 0 0
CONSO00120 mevalonate pathway pathway The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria 0 0 0 0
CONSO00121 Dopaminergic cell groups anatomy UBERON:dopaminergic cell groups 0 0 0 0
CONSO00122 mitochondrial precursor protein protein The precursor protein of mitochondria 0 0 0 0
CONSO00123 PDR-1 protein the nematode homolog of Parkin 0 0 0 0
CONSO00124 PINK-1 protein the nematode homolog of PINK1 0 0 0 2
CONSO00125 skn-1 protein the nematode homolog of Skn1 0 0 0 0
CONSO00126 ced-9 protein the nematode homolog of Bcl-2 0 0 0 0
CONSO00127 lgg-1 protein the nematode homolog of Lgg1 0 0 0 0
CONSO00128 clec-65 protein the nematode homolog of Clec65 0 0 0 0
CONSO00129 clec-4 protein the nematode homolog of Clec4 0 0 0 0
CONSO00131 exotoxin A protein exotoxin A is an exotoxin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.It inhibits elongation factor-2. It does so by ADP-ribosylation of EF2. This then causes the elongation of polypeptides to cease. 0 1 0 0
CONSO00132 mitochondrial DAMPs ? mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns 0 0 0 0
CONSO00133 IκB kinase protein complex The IκB kinase is an enzyme complex that is involved in propagating the cellular response to inflammation. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00134 non-shivering thermogenesis biological process Nonshivering thermogenesis was originally defined as a cold-induced increase in heat production not associated with the muscle activity of shivering. Recent research shows it to be a metabolic process located primarily in brown adipose tissue and controlled by the activity of the sympathetic nervous supply of this tissue 0 0 0 0
CONSO00135 hsp-16 protein the nematode homologus of hsp16 0 0 0 0
CONSO00136 heat shock proteins protein family Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions. They were first described in relation to heat shock, 0 0 0 1
CONSO00137 high-calorie diets exposure Diets with high calorie. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00138 proteotoxicity pathology To function, proteins must undergo a folding process that gives them the proper three dimensional structure. Numerous genetic and biochemical observations suggest that proteins that fail to fold properly impair cell function. This process, also referred to as proteotoxicity, is particularly important to the fate of non-renewable cells of long-lived organisms in which malfolded proteins (proteotoxins) can exert their deleterious influence over extended periods of time.reference:Proteotoxicity and Aging 0 0 0 0
CONSO00139 ss20399075 genetic variant A SNP located within the 3' UTR of FGF20, is significantly associated with PD risk 0 0 0 0
CONSO00140 Alpha-synuclein Oligomerization biological process The formation of alpha-synuclein oligmer 0 0 0 0
CONSO00141 D6S253 ? A microsatellite markers for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases 0 0 0 0
CONSO00142 D6S305 ? A microsatellite markers for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases 0 0 0 0
CONSO00143 MTHFR,TT+AA ? In Parkinson's Disease, TT+AA is more frequent in MTHFR gene. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00144 CAG repeats motif CAG repeats in genes. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00145 Gastrointestinal dysfunctions pathology The function of gastrotestine disorder. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00146 olfactory epithelium anatomy UBERON:olfactory epithelium 0 0 0 0
CONSO00147 nasal cycle ? The nasal cycle is the often unnoticed alternating partial congestion and decongestion of the nasal cavities in humans and other animals. It is a physiological congestion of the nasal concha, also called the nasal turbinate, due to selective activation of one half of the autonomic nervous system by the hypothalamus. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00148 hyposmia pathology Hyposmia is a reduced ability to smell and to detect odors.Hyposmia might be a very early sign of Parkinson's disease. Hyposmia is also an early and almost universal finding in Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Lifelong hyposmia could be caused by Kallmann syndrome. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00149 FMR1,(55-200 CGG) genetic variant A premutation (PM) expansion (55-200 CGG) in the fragile X mental retardation gene 1 causes elevated messenger RNA and reduced fragile X mental retardation gene 1 protein. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00150 pof14 ? a new member of the F-box family, Pof14, which forms a canonical 0 0 0 0
CONSO00151 Neuroglia anatomy MeSH Unique ID: D009457 0 0 0 1
CONSO00152 GDNF Family chemical class The GDNF family of ligands (GFL) consists of four neurotrophic factors: glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NRTN), artemin (ARTN), and persephin (PSPN). GFLs have been shown to play a role in a number of biological processes including cell survival, neurite outgrowth, cell differentiation and cell migration. In particular signalling by GDNF promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00153 Motor Neurons anatomy MeSH Unique ID: D009046 0 0 0 1
CONSO00154 noradrenergic neuron anatomy Cell:noradrenergic neuron 0 0 0 0
CONSO00155 midbrain dopaminergic neuron anatomy Cell:midbrain dopaminergic neuron 0 0 0 0
CONSO00156 Neurites anatomy A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00157 GRB10,BPS domain domain BPS domain of protein GRB10 0 0 0 0
CONSO00158 common fragile site cellular component A chromosomal fragile site is a specific heritable point on a chromosome that tends to form a gap or constriction and may tend to break when the cell is exposed to partial replication stress.Based on their frequency, fragile sites are classified as common or rare.To date, more than 120 fragile sites have been identified in the human genome. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00159 PARK7-alpha helices domain The alpha helices of PARK7 protein 0 0 0 0
CONSO00160 cleaved PINK1 protein fragment The cleaved part of Protein PINK1 0 0 0 0
CONSO00161 neurovascular unit anatomy The brain hyperaemia, or coupling, is accomplished by a group of cells, closely related to each other; called neurovascular unit (NVU). The neurovascular unit is composed by neurones, astrocytes, endothelial cells of blood-brain barrier (BBB), myocytes, pericytes and extracellular matrix components 0 0 0 0
CONSO00162 Muscles anatomy MeSH Unique ID: D009132 0 0 0 1
CONSO00163 Neural Stem Cell anatomy MeSH Unique ID: D058953 0 0 0 1
CONSO00164 Ventral Tegmental Area anatomy MeSH Unique ID: D017557 0 0 0 1
CONSO00165 Pars Compacta anatomy MeSH Unique ID: D065842 0 0 0 1
CONSO00166 proline-rich domain domain Correspounding to residues I151 to Q244 of the 441 aa tau isoform, separated into P1 and P2. Possible role in tau's functional stabilization through the reported intramolecular interaction of P2 with R1, R2 and R4 from the microtubule-binding region 2 0 2 0
CONSO00167 lys-2 protein the nematode homolog of Lys2 0 0 0 0
CONSO00168 abf-2 protein the nematode homolog of Abf2 0 0 0 0
CONSO00169 hydrophobic pocket of actin domain The lower cleft between domains 1 and 3 is lined by residues Tyr143, Ala144, Gly146, Thr148, Gly168, Ile341, Ile345, Leu346, Leu349, Thr351, and Met355, which are predominantly hydrophobic. This cleft constitutes the major binding site for most ABPs and also mediates important longitudinal contacts between actin subunits in the filament 0 0 0 0
CONSO00170 310-helix motif The 310-helix is the fourth most common type of secondary structure in proteins after α-helices, β-sheets, and reverse turns (Barlow and Thornton 1988). Approximately 15%–20% of all helices in protein structures are 310-helices, which are commonly found as N- or C-terminal extensions to an α-helix (Barlow and Thornton 1988). 310-Helices in proteins are typically only three to five residues long compared with a mean of 10–12 residues for α-helices (Richardson and Richardson 1988) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00171 Amylin Antagonist AC253 peptide Amino Acid Sequence: Ac-Leu-Gly-Arg-Leu-Ser-Gln-Glu-Leu-His-Arg-Leu-Gln-Thr-Tyr-Pro-Arg-Thr-Asn-Thr-Gly-Ser-Asn-Thr-Tyr-NH2 0 0 0 0
CONSO00172 CDK5R1 p25 protein The cyclin dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 1 (CDK5R1), also known as p35, is cleaved by Calpain to produce the p25 fragment 0 0 0 1
CONSO00173 PTI-125 chemical (proprietary) PTI-125 is a proprietary small molecule that preferentially binds altered FLNA and restores its native conformation, restoring receptor and synaptic activities and reducing its alpha7nAChR/TLR4 associations and downstream pathologies 0 0 0 0
CONSO00174 alpha-4 beta-2 nAChR protein complex In addition to nAChRs forming from different subunit assemblages, stoichiometric study has shown that α4β2 nAChRs can form as either (α4)3(β2)2 or (α4)2(β2)3, the latter having a greater affinity for both nicotine and Ach 0 0 0 0
CONSO00175 alpha-7 beta-2 nAChR protein complex Accumulating evidence demonstrates that these α7 and β2 nAChR subunits can co-assemble to form functional α7β2 nAChRs in heterologous expression systems, and also under natural conditions in the brain (Figure 1) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00176 beta-2-containing nAChR protein complex The β2 subunit can couple with non-α4 subunits, including α2, α3 and α6 subunits to form functionally distinct nAChRs, but these receptors are much less densely expressed in the central nervous system relative to α4β2* nAChRs (*indicating potential assemblage of β2 subunits with non-α4 subunits) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00177 Abeta*56 cellular component 56 kDa soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) assembly 0 0 0 0
CONSO00178 protein aggregates cellular component Aggregates of proteins or fragments of proteins 4 0 0 2
CONSO00179 sAPP-gamma protein fragment results from the cleavage of beta APP by gamma-secretase 0 0 0 0
CONSO00180 alpha-6-containing nAChR protein complex alpha6-containing receptors, which in brain occur as heteropentamers with beta2 and beta3 and are especially enriched in presynaptic nerve terminals in striatum (Champtiaux et al.,2002) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00181 phosphatase-activating domain domain Tau domain located in the N-terminal region encompassing residues 2-18. It activates phosphatase PP1 which dephosphorylates Ser9 in GSK3Beta and leads to its activation. In normal tau, both NTD and CTD are folded back in proximity to each other forming a 'paper-clip' conformation, which masks the PAD. Phosphorylation in the AT8 epitope, disrupts this normal conformational state, exposing the PAD by moving away the terminal domains. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00182 cystein-dependent auto-acetylation biological process Autocatalytic cysteine-mediated acetylation of Lys residues in the MTBR upon incubation of tau proteins with acetyl-CoA, possible even in absence of enzymatic activity.This activity may be suppressed when tau is bound to tubulin or MTs, but activated upon tau dissociation during pathological conditions that abrogate tau-MT interactions, thus allowing acetyl-CoA accessibility to free tau cysteines. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00183 GVD bodies cellular component Pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer Disease, consisting in intraneuronal accumulations of large membrane-bound vacuoles. Associated with the late stages of disease progression, they were also shown to be immunopositive or GSK3Beta and SYK (Spleen Tyrosine Kinase). 0 0 0 0
CONSO00184 advanced glycation end product chemical class Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the production of Maillard reaction between carbohydrates and proteins. They cause neurotoxicity via production of ROS followed by an increase in expression of APP and amyloid beta. Recent analysis implicates them in tau phosphorylation. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00185 long-term potentiation ? A long lasting enhancement in synaptic transmission between two neurons, most commonly studied in the synapse between the Schaffer collateral axons of the CA3 neurons and the CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. Alongside the LTD (long-term depression) represent the two mechanisms of memory formation and storage. Impairment of this process in AD is caused by soluble oligmoeric amyloid beta. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00186 proline-rich region 1 domain Part of the wider proline-rich domain, divided between the projection and assembly domains, this region together with the MTBR mediate tau interaction and binding to F actin. 0 2 0 0
CONSO00187 proline-rich region 2 domain Part of the wider proline-rich domain, divided between the projection and assembly domains, this region together with the MTBR mediate tau interaction and binding to F actin. 0 2 0 0
CONSO00188 assembly domain domain Tau assembly domain consists of the second part of the proline-rich region (PR2), MTBR and CTD, corresponding to residues 199-441 of the canonical tau isoform. 2 0 0 0
CONSO00189 CRL4 complex protein complex Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex 4, consisting of CUL4(A,B), DDB1 and CRBN. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00190 APP, ACR domain Cytosolic region of APP, responsible for interacting with E3 ubiquitin ligases among other proteins. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00191 tubulin detyrosination post-translational modification Detyrosination is a form of posttranslational modification that occurs on alpha-tubulin. It consists of the removal of the C-terminal tyrosine to expose a glutamate at the newly formed C-terminus. Promoted by Tau truncation in the Gln124 residue. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00192 Microgliosis biological process An intense reaction of microglia following CNS insult, characterized by active proliferation and retracted cellular processes. In AD, accumulation of Abeta can be a possible cause of such physiological phenomenon, as microglia is seen surrounding senile plaques. Abeta interaction with microglial pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leads to NLRP3 inflammasome activation, production of toxic NOS and ROS and release of proinflammatory cytokines. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00193 Astrogliosis biological process Morphological and functional changes observed in astrocytes in the context of their physiological response to CNS trauma or injury caused by ischemia, stroke, autoimmune disorders and neurodegeneration. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00194 CK1 superfamily protein family The CK1 group of eukaryotic protein kinases are composed of seven CK1 isoforms (CK1α, CK1α2, CK1δ, CK1ε, CK1γ1, CK1γ2, and CK1γ3), two Tau–tubulin kinase isoforms (TTBK1 and TTBK2), and three VRK isoforms (VRK1, VRK2, and VRK3) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00195 alpha-4-containing nAChR protein complex nAChRs that bind radiolabeled nicotine with the highest affinity contain a4 subunits (a4*-nAChR) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00196 alpha-4 beta-4 nAChR protein complex a4 subunits can also assemble with b4 subunits to form a4b4-nAChRs that have comparably high nicotine affinity 0 0 0 0
CONSO00197 alpha-7-containing nAChR protein complex Another prominent nAChR subtype found in vertebrate central and autonomic nervous systems contains a7 subunits. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00198 alpha-Bungarotoxin protein Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). 0 0 0 1
CONSO00199 alpha-3 beta-2 nAChR protein complex nAChRs containing the a3b2 subunit interface 0 0 0 0
CONSO00200 kappa-Bungarotoxin protein kappa-Bungarotoxin, a snake venom kappa-neurotoxin, is a potent neuronal nicotinic receptor antagonist (pubmed:3359187) 0 0 0 1
CONSO00201 VU10010 chemical highly selective M4 (mAChR) allosteric potentiator. Chemical name: 3-Amino-N-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4,6-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide 0 0 39 4
CONSO00202 VU0456940 chemical M1-selective PAM that potentiates M1 (mAChR). Chemical name:1-[4,6-difluoro-1-[6-(1-methylpyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl]indol-3-yl]sulfonyl-3-(5-methyl-1,2-oxazol-3-yl)propan-2-one 0 0 3 3
CONSO00203 VU0152099 chemical selective M4 (mAChR) allosteric potentiator. Chemical name: 3-Amino-N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-4,6-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide 0 0 25 4
CONSO00204 VU0029767 chemical selective M1(mAChR)-PAM. Chemical name: 2-(4-Ethoxyanilino)-N'-[(Z)-(2-oxonaphthalen-1-ylidene)methyl]acetohydrazide 0 0 10 3
CONSO00205 VU0090157 chemical selective M1(mAChR)-PAM. Chemical name: Cyclopentyl 3,4-dimethyl-6-(6-nitro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate 0 0 21 3
CONSO00206 VU0184670 chemical M1(mAChR) allosteric agonists. Chemical name: Ethyl 4-(2-benzamidoethylamino)piperidine-1-carboxylate hydrochloride 0 0 6 4
CONSO00207 2-Bromohexadecanoic acid chemical Inhibits Fyn localization in lipid rafts and subsequently inhibits the fyn-dependent Abeta redistribution and accumulation in lipid rafts, process linked with ADDL-induced cell death. 0 0 64 4
CONSO00208 20 S Proteasome protein complex The catalytic core of the 26 S proteasome system, responsible for tau degradation 0 0 0 0
CONSO00209 3-3 dityrosine cross-linking ? An oxidation product consisting of covalent ortho-ortho coupling between two tyrosine residues formed as a conseguence to UV irradiation, gamma-irradiation, aging, exposure to oxygen free radicals, nitrogen dioxide, peroxynitrite, and lipid hydroperoxides. ROS catalyzed by Cu ions are involved in the generation of these cross-links in amyloid beta oligomers to which they provide stability. Also involved in the stabilization of tau PHF. A potential biomarker of oxidative stress in AD. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00210 Braak_Stage I ? A disease propagation and progression model, composed of six stages of increasing pathological severity determined by the location of the tangle-bearing neurons and the amplitude of the pathophysiological changes. Transentorhinal stages I-II: correspond to clinically silent cases of very mildly affected subjects, showing no cognitive impairment. NFT are slowly and gradually developping. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00211 Braak_Stage II ? A disease propagation and progression model, composed of six stages of increasing pathological severity determined by the location of the tangle-bearing neurons and the amplitude of the pathophysiological changes. Transentorhinal stages I-II: correspond to clinically silent cases of very mildly affected subjects, showing no cognitive impairment. NFT are slowly and gradually developping. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00212 Braak_Stage III ? A disease propagation and progression model, composed of six stages of increasing pathological severity determined by the location of the tangle-bearing neurons and the amplitude of the pathophysiological changes.Limbic stages III-IV designate an incipient Alzheimer's disease, since due to the lack of neocortical destruction, stages III and IV do not meet the currently used criteria for neuropathologic diagnosis of AD. Stage III is characterised by the destruction of the external principal stratum of the entorhinal laminae presenting considerable amounts of NFT and neuropil threads. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00213 Braak_Stage IV ? A disease propagation and progression model, composed of six stages of increasing pathological severity determined by the location of the tangle-bearing neurons and the amplitude of the pathophysiological changes.Limbic stages III-IV designate an incipient Alzheimer's disease, since due to the lack of neocortical destruction, stages III and IV do not meet the currently used criteria for neuropathologic diagnosis of AD. Stage IV is characterised by the destruction of the internal principal stratum of the entorhinal laminae presenting considerable amounts of NFT and neuropil threads. The destruction of entorhinal cellular layers interferes with the normal transfer of information between neocortex and hippocampus, manifesting as cognitive impairment and subtle personality changes. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00214 Braak_Stage V ? A disease propagation and progression model, composed of six stages of increasing pathological severity determined by the location of the tangle-bearing neurons and the amplitude of the pathophysiological changes.neocortical stages V-VI correspond to fully developed Alzheimer's disease. These stages are characterized by large numbers of NFTs in all sections of cerebral cortex and present neocortical damage thus contributing to the development of the conventional neuropathological criteria for the clinical diagnosis of AD. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00215 Braak_Stage VI ? A disease propagation and progression model, composed of six stages of increasing pathological severity determined by the location of the tangle-bearing neurons and the amplitude of the pathophysiological changes.neocortical stages V-VI correspond to fully developed Alzheimer's disease. These stages are characterized by large numbers of NFTs in all sections of cerebral cortex and present neocortical damage thus contributing to the development of the conventional neuropathological criteria for the clinical diagnosis of AD. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00216 CagA peptide peptide A peptide with sequence:GFPLKRHDGVDDLSKVG, originally synthesized by Helicobacter Pylori acting as a specific MARK kinase inhibitor, decreasing tau phosphorylation 0 0 0 0
CONSO00217 MARK4 isoform 2 (688 aa) isoform Shortest isoform of Microtubule affinity regulating kinase 4 (MARK4) derived from alternatvie splicing. It is upregulated during the early stages of neuron differentiation. 0 1 0 1
CONSO00218 NP_001387.2:p.Arg205del protein variant Loss of function mutant of DYRK1A isoform 1 0 0 0 0
CONSO00219 NP_001387.2:p.Glu239del protein variant Loss of function mutant of DYRK1A isoform 1 0 0 0 0
CONSO00220 PrP106-126 protein fragment Prion protein fragment 106-126. This peptide increases membrane microviscosity, intracellular Ca2+ concentration and cell migration in circulating leucocytes, and oxygen production in monocytes and neutrophils. It also induces apoptotic cell death and impairment of L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity in the GH3 cell lines. PrP (106–126) stimulates leucocyte migration in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibits tau phosphorylaton at Ser262. Seq = KTNMKHMAGAAAAGAVVGGLG 0 0 0 0
CONSO00221 Purkinje cell layer of cerebellar cortex anatomy The Purkinje cell layer lies just underneath the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. It contains the neuronal cell bodies of the Purkinje cells that are arranged side by side in a single layer. Candelabrum interneurons are vertically oriented between the Purkinje cells. Purkinje neurons are inhibitory and provide the output of the cerebellar cortex through axons that project into the white matter. Extensive dendritic trees from the Purkinje cells extend upward in a single plane into the molecular layer where they synapse with parallel fibers of granule cells. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00222 Tau antibody, AGG5759 antibody Tau antibody with specificity for pSer262 0 1 0 0
CONSO00223 Tau antibody, Tau-13 antibody Tau murine monoclonal antibody with specificity for pSer262 0 1 0 0
CONSO00224 Tau epitope, 12E8 epitope Tau epitope consisting of pSer262 and pSer356 0 0 0 0
CONSO00225 Tau epitope, AT180 epitope Tau epitope consisting of pThr231 0 0 0 0
CONSO00226 Tau epitope, AT8 epitope Tau epitope consisting of pSer202, pThr205, pSer208, pSer199 0 0 0 0
CONSO00227 Tau epitope, CP13 epitope Tau epitope consisting of pSer202 0 0 0 0
CONSO00228 Tau epitope, PHF1 epitope Tau epitope consisting of pSer396, pSer404 0 0 0 0
CONSO00229 dystrophic neurite ? Dysfunctional axons and terminals that accumulate the β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE1) required for Aβ generation. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00230 granular layer of cerebellar cortex anatomy The granular layer is the innermost layer of the cerebellar cortex. This layer contains densely packed small neurons, mostly granule cells. Some Golgi cells are found at the outer border. Granule neurons send parallel fibers to the upper molecular layer, where they synapse with Purkinje cell dendrites. Mossy fibers from the pontine nuclei in the white matter synapse with granule cell axons, Golgi cell axons and unipolar brush interneuron axons at cerebellar glomeruli in the granule cell layer 0 0 0 0
CONSO00231 molecular layer of cerebellar cortex anatomy The molecular layer is the outermost layer of the cerebellar cortex. It contains the parallel fibers of the granule cells, interneurons such as stellate and basket cells, and the dendrites of the underlying Purkinje cells 0 0 0 0
CONSO00232 Kalirin 7 isoform Isoform of KALRN protein 0 1 0 0
CONSO00233 4R tauopathy pathology Tauopathies characterized by a relatively higher presence of the 4R tau isoforms, such as Alzheimers Disease and Corticobasal Degeneration 1 0 0 0
CONSO00234 ACY-1215 chemical Ricolinostat is an orally bioavailable, specific inhibitor of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) with potential antineoplastic activity. Ricolinostat selectively targets and binds to HDAC6, thereby disrupting the Hsp90 protein chaperone system through hyperacetylation of Hsp90 and preventing the subsequent aggresomal protein degradation. This leads to an accumulation of unfolded and misfolded ubiquitinated proteins and may eventually induce cancer cell apoptosis, and inhibition of cancer cell growth. HDAC6, a class II HDAC deacetylase located in the cytoplasm, appears to play a key role in the formation and activation of the aggresomes needed for degradation of misfolded proteins. Compared to non-selective HDAC inhibitor, ACY-1215 is able to reduce the toxic effects on normal, healthy cells. 1 0 61 7
CONSO00235 APOE e3 genetic variant Interacts with tubulin binding repeat 1 0 0 0 0
CONSO00236 BAY61-3606 chemical A cell-permeable imidazopyrimidine compound that acts a potent, ATP-competitive, reversible, and highly selective inhibitor of Syk tyrosine kinase activity (IC50 = 10 nM) with no inhibitory effect against Btk, Fyn, Itk, Lyn, and Src even at concentrations as high as 4.7 µM. Shown to inhibit Syk-mediated cellular functions in vitro and exhibit good oral bioavailability and in vivo effacacy in the treatment of various allgery and asthma conditions in rat models. Indirect inhibitory effect on GSK3B activity 0 0 40 7
CONSO00237 Biphenyl-4-yl-acrylohydroxamoc acids chemical class Chemical compund group acting as inhibitors of HDAC family proteins. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00238 Brodmann (1909) area 36 anatomy Ectorhinal area 36 is a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined temporal region of cerebral cortex. With its medial boundary corresponding approximately to the rhinal sulcus it is located primarily in the fusiform gyrus. Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded laterally and caudally by the inferior temporal area 20, medially by the perirhinal area 35 and rostrally by the temporopolar area 38 (H) (Brodmann-1909). Together with Brodmann area 35, it comprises the perirhinal cortex. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00239 C-30-27 chemical PCAF and NFkappaB inhibitor, showed anti-inflammatory properties and improved cognition 0 0 0 2
CONSO00240 C646 chemical Inhibitor of EP300 acetylase 0 0 22 3
CONSO00241 CA1 field of hippocampus anatomy Part of hippocampus proper bounded by CA2 and the subiculum, characterized by pyramidal neurons that receive projections from pyramidal neurons of CA3 via the Schaffer collaterals. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00242 CA2 field of hippocampus anatomy Part of hippocampus proper bounded by areas CA3 and CA1, characterized by a narrow layer of large pyramidal cells, similar in size to CA3 pyramidal cells, but which lack the mossy fiber input from the dentate gyrus 0 0 0 1
CONSO00243 CA3 field of hippocampus anatomy Part of hippocampus proper bounded by the hilus of the dentate gyrus and area CA2, characterized by large pyramidal cells and a dense projection from dentate gyrus granule cell mossy fibers. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00244 CA4 field of hippocampus anatomy The last of four regions in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus and is also part of the hilus of the dentate gyrus. This area contains mostly mossy cells that receive inputs from the dentate gyrus and pyramidal cells in the CA3 region and also projects back to the dentate gyrus. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00245 CGP3466B chemical Inhibitor of GAPDH nitrosylation, abrogated Abeta induced tau acetylation and subsequent pathological impairments related to AD 0 0 36 8
CONSO00246 CM-414 chemical A dual inhibitor of PDE5 and HDACs, chronic treatment of Tg2576 mice, a well characterized AD mouse model, showed decreased Ab and Tau phsophorylation and inhibition of GSK3B activity. 0 0 31 4
CONSO00247 DAPK, basic loop (BL) motif motif A structural motif of DAPK (Death-Associated Protein Kinase) positively regulating the kinase activity. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00248 Histone H3 protein One of the five main histone proteins of chromatin structure, acetylation at Lys 9 was positively linked with the transcriptional activation of various genes involved in neuro-regeneration following peripheral axonal injury, among which BDNF. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00249 ID-8 chemical Inhibitor of GSK3Beta and DYRK1 kinases 0 0 0 0
CONSO00250 LDN-193594 chemical A synthetic derviative of 2,4-diaminothiazole serving as an inhibitor of CDK5 kinase acitivty and of tau PHF1 epitope phosphorylation 0 1 10 4
CONSO00251 LDN-193665 chemical A synthetic derviative of 2,4-diaminothiazole with a lesser powerful inhibitory effect on CDK5, but a potent inhibitor of Gsk3b 0 1 0 3
CONSO00252 LDN-213843 chemical Small molecule of the diaminothiazole class, acting as inhibitor of CDK5 and GSK3Beta kinases 0 1 0 2
CONSO00253 Long-Term Depression pathology A gradual weakening of neuronal synaptic connections lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus. Along with LTP (long term potentiation) is one of the main mechanisms of memory formation, more specifically of spatial memory. The mechanism involves an interplay of NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors, with minimal intracellular calcium levels triggering a cellular cascade leading to the removal of the latter and an overall decrease of the glutammate receptors in the postsynaptic neurons, thus weakening the synapse. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00254 Pathological Tau Spreading pathology Pathological spreading pattern of tau into defined anatomycally interconnected brain regions during the progression of tauopathy. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00255 PrPSc isoform PrPSc (scrapie isoform of the prion protein) prions are the infectious agent behind diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, chronic wasting disease in cervids (deer, elk, moose, and reindeer), as well as goat and sheep scrapie. PrPSc is an alternatively folded variant of the cellular prion protein, PrPC, which is a regular, GPI-anchored protein that is present on the cell surface of neurons and other cell types. 0 1 0 2
CONSO00256 Tau Protein Secondary Structure, Turn ? A turn-like structure formed in tau as a conseguence of the phosphorylation of only Ser202 and Thr205 residues, protects against aggregation. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00257 Tau antibody, RG7345 antibody RG7345 is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the tau phosphoepitope pS422. Tau phosphorylated at this site is considered a pathological form that has been linked to the relocalization of tau away from microtubules and toward the somato-dendritic compartment of the neuron. 0 1 0 0
CONSO00258 RGFP966 chemical Selective inhibitor of HDAC3 0 0 36 4
CONSO00259 SL-327 chemical Inhibitor of MAP2K1/2 kinases activity in murine neuroblastoma cell line N2A 0 0 51 5
CONSO00260 Spinocerebellar Ataxia 11 pathology Spinocerebellar ataxia type 11 (SCA11) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and abnormal eye signs (jerky pursuit, horizontal and vertical nystagmus). Caused by mutations in the TTBK2 (Tau Tubulin Kinase 2) gene, is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00261 ST7612AA1 chemical A thiol derivative, pan-HDAC inhibitor 0 0 8 4
CONSO00262 Tau antibody, AGG5759 antibody Rabbit polyclonal antibody against tau pSer262, AstraZeneca 0 1 0 0
CONSO00263 Tau epitope, AD2 epitope Tau epitope consisting of pThr396 and pSer404 0 1 0 0
CONSO00264 Tau epitope, AP422 epitope Tau epitope consisting of pSer422 0 1 0 0
CONSO00265 Tau epitope, AT100 epitope Tau epitope consisting of pSer214 and pThr212 0 1 0 0
CONSO00266 Tau epitope, AT270 epitope Tau epitope consisting of pThr181 0 1 0 0
CONSO00267 Thiamet G chemical Inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase (OGA) 0 0 29 4
CONSO00268 Thioflavin S chemical mixture Dye binding to PHF used in AD diagnostics 0 0 0 0
CONSO00269 Trithiocarbonates chemical class Chemical compound group of susbtrate competitive selective HDAC6 inhibitors 0 0 0 0
CONSO00270 Tubacin chemical Inhibitor of HDAC6 0 0 0 5
CONSO00271 Tubastatin A chemical Inhibitor of HDAC6 shown to also decrease tau hyperphosphorylation and Ab load 0 0 0 4
CONSO00272 USP14 Aptamer aptamer Inhibitory oligopeptide of the USP14, a deubiquitinating enzyme. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00273 cholinergic neuron anatomy A neuron that uses acetylcholine as a vesicular neurotransmitter. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00274 cerebral cortex anatomy The thin layer of gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere that develops from the telencephalon. It consists of the neocortex (6 layered cortex or isocortex), the hippocampal formation and the olfactory cortex. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00275 crebinostat chemical Inhibitor of HDAC6 0 0 0 3
CONSO00276 diaminothiazole chemical class Compound class with kinase inhibition properties, specifically for CDK5 and GSK3Beta 1 0 0 0
CONSO00277 entorhinal cortex layer 2 anatomy Layer of the entorhinal cortex lying superficial to layer 3 and deep to layer 1. It is characterized by medium-to large sized stellate cells that are grouped into prominent clusters, particularly in the rostral entorhinal cortex. 1 0 0 0
CONSO00278 granular layer of cerebellar cortex anatomy The granular layer is the innermost layer of the cerebellar cortex. This layer contains densely packed small neurons, mostly granule cells. Some Golgi cells are found at the outer border. Granule neurons send parallel fibers to the upper molecular layer, where they synapse with Purkinje cell dendrites. Mossy fibers from the pontine nuclei in the white matter synapse with granule cell axons, Golgi cell axons and unipolar brush interneuron axons at cerebellar glomeruli in the granule cell layer. 1 0 0 0
CONSO00279 indirubin chemical A powerful inhibitor of GSK3B 0 0 0 4
CONSO00280 isocarboxazide chemical Inhibitor of tau aggregation 0 1 110 6
CONSO00281 isopentanyladenine chemical Inhibitor of CKD5 activity 0 0 123 5
CONSO00282 maitotoxin chemical Increases intracellular calcium levels, and induces the association of TGM2 with tau, positively affecting the activity of the former 0 0 6 6
CONSO00283 olomoucine chemical Inhibitor of CKD5 activity 0 0 129 5
CONSO00284 oxazolidinedione chemical Inhibitor of tau aggregation 0 1 44 3
CONSO00285 sudoxicam chemical Inhibitor of tau aggregation 0 1 46 4
CONSO00286 thiohydantoin chemical Inhibitor of tau aggregation 0 1 0 4
CONSO00287 thioxooxazolidine chemical Inhibitor of tau aggregation 0 1 0 0
CONSO00288 tideglusib chemical Irreversibly inhibits GSK3B activity 0 0 48 3
CONSO00289 Tau antibody, 6C5 antibody human monoclonal antibody that targets tau epitope 125-131 0 2 0 0
CONSO00290 Tau antibody, HT7 antibody mouse monoclonal antibody that targets tau epitope 159-163 0 1 0 0
CONSO00291 6-O-sulfated heparin ? During synthesis the HS chains are selectively sulfated at the N, 6-O, and 3-O positions of the glucosamine (GlcNS) and at the 2-O position of the uronic acid residue by HS sulfotransferases and modified by C5-epimerization of glucuronic acid (GlcA) to iduronic acid (IdoA) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00292 2-O-sulfated heparin ? During synthesis the HS chains are selectively sulfated at the N, 6-O, and 3-O positions of the glucosamine (GlcNS) and at the 2-O position of the uronic acid residue by HS sulfotransferases and modified by C5-epimerization of glucuronic acid (GlcA) to iduronic acid (IdoA) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00293 sonicated tau fibrils cellular component To make sonicated fibril samples, fibrillized protein was sonicated using a MiSonix Sonicator 4000 (QSonica, LLC) at 50% amplitude for 60 1 s pulses 0 0 0 0
CONSO00294 Tau antibody, 40E8 antibody human monoclonal antibody that targets tau epitope 195-212 (pS202 and pT205) 0 1 0 0
CONSO00295 Tau antibody, pS396 antibody rabbit polyclonal antibody that targets tau pS396 0 1 0 0
CONSO00296 Tau antibody, 4E4 antibody human monoclonal antibody that targets tau epitope 385-395 0 2 0 0
CONSO00297 Tau antibody, Tau46 antibody mouse monoclonal antibody that targets tau epitope 404-441 0 2 0 0
CONSO00298 cis p-tau protein The cis conformation of phosphorylated tau is considered to be the main pathogenic tau agent associated with AD neurological impairments. PIN1, a peptidyl-prolyl-cis-transe isomerase, catalizes the rotation of the peptidic bond directly before proline residues inducing a conversion toward the trans conformation, therefore reducing the presence of the pathogenic cis tau isomers. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00299 MPT0G211 chemical MPT0G211 is a novel potent, selective HDAC6 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.291 nM, displays >1,000-fold selectivity over other HDAC isoforms; significantly inhibits tau phosphorylation on Ser396, Ser404, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) aggregation, significantly attenuates apoptosis induced by p-tau, inhibits HDAC6/Hsp90 binding and causes subsequent proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins; ameliorates learning and memory impairment in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, reduces the amount of phosphorylated tau in the hippocampal CA1 region; also demonstrates antiproliferative activity against human multiple myeloma RPMI 8226, U266, and NCI-H929 cells with no effect on normal bone marrow cells. 0 0 0 3
CONSO00300 peripheral nervous system injury pathology PNS injuries initiate a signaling cascade that induces neuroregeneration. This cascade involves activation of ERK, subsequently leading to the activation of PCAF (KAT2B), which in turn mediates histone 3 acetylation, paving the way for transcriptional activation of the key genes in the regeneration program. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00301 Tau antibody, TNT1 antibody Murine monoclonal IgG recognizing the phosphatase-activating domain (PAD) of tau 0 1 0 0
CONSO00302 Tau antibody, TNT2 antibody Murine monoclonal IgG recognizing the phosphatase-activating domain (PAD) of tau 0 1 0 0
CONSO00303 8-nitro-cGMP chemical One of the major endogenus cGMP derivatives, a class of second messengers in the nitric oxide signalling pathway. It modifies the target protein's cysteine residues via a stable sulfide bond through the NO group of the guanine base, in a post translational modification also known as S-guanylation, a process involved in the regulation of the physiological roles of several important proteins. The S-guanylation of tau was shown to block the aggregation process and the subsequent formation of tau oligomers. 0 0 0 3
CONSO00304 Tau dimers cellular component A key intermediate product of tau oligomerization to PHF and NFT formation, they consist of covalently linked antiparallel tau monomers presenting disulfide cross links between cystein residues. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00305 polysumoylation post-translational modification A post-translational modification consisting on the addition and covalent bonding of multiple SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifiers) proteins to lysine residues of target proteins, mediating a wide range of physiological functions. Polysumoylation of APP was found to reduce the generation of amyloid beta peptides, while mono or under-sumoylation enhance Ab generation. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00306 detyrosination post-translational modification Detyrosination is a form of posttranslational modification that occurs on alpha-tubulin. It consists of the removal of the C-terminal tyrosine to expose a glutamate at the newly formed C-terminus. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00307 Tau antibody antibody Antibodies for the Tau protein (HGNC:MAPT) 16 0 0 0
CONSO00308 Tau epitope epitope Epitopes targed by antibodies for the Tau protein (HGNC:MAPT) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00309 S 24795 chemical A partial agonist at α7 nAChR 0 0 12 4
CONSO00310 GTS-21 chemical GTS-21 is a derivative of the natural product anabaseine that acts as a partial agonist at neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It binds to both the α4β2 and α7 subtypes, but activates only the α7 to any significant extent. 1 0 50 5
CONSO00311 alpha-4 alpha-5 beta-2 nAChR protein complex nAChR subtype found in cortex, hippocampus and neostriatum 0 0 0 1
CONSO00312 alpha-3 beta-4 nAChR protein complex nAChR subtype found in hippocampus, pineal gland and cerebellum 0 0 0 1
CONSO00313 alpha-3 beta-3 beta-4 nAChR protein complex nAChR subtype found in habenula and interpeduncular nucleus 0 0 0 0
CONSO00314 alpha-6 beta-2 beta-3 nAChR protein complex nAChR subtype found in locus coeruleus, substantia nigra and neostriatum 0 0 0 0
CONSO00315 alpha-2 beta-2 nAChR protein complex nAChR subtype found in interpeduncular nucleus 0 0 0 0
CONSO00316 alpha-6 alpha-4 beta-2 beta-3 nAChR protein complex nAChR subtype found in neostriatum 0 0 0 0
CONSO00317 protein aggregation biological process Protein aggregation occurs in vivo as a result of improper folding or misfolding 0 0 0 0
CONSO00318 nAChR assembly biological process the process of assembling a receptor pentamer from the Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors subunits 0 0 0 0
CONSO00319 4-OH-GTS-21 chemical A metabolic product of GTS-21 (HBP:CONSO00310) in which the methoxy at the 4-position has been cleaved to leave a hydroxyl 0 1 3 3
CONSO00320 isolation rearing exposure An animal model in which rats, immediately after weaning (usually postnatal day 21), are housed in isolation from siblings for an extended period (usually several weeks). In adulthood, these animals show many characteristics also seen in patients with schizophrenia 0 0 0 0
CONSO00321 Tau aggregation inhibitor chemical role A chemical that inhibits the aggregation of the Tau protein (HGNC:MAPT) as form paired helical fragments (PHFs), straight filaments (SFs), oligomers, and larger aggregates 8 1 0 1
CONSO00322 1,3-Thiazole-2,4-diamine chemical A thiazole with two amino substituents 0 0 27 3
CONSO00323 Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy pathology Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a genetic form of epilepsy that is caused by mutations in several genes, including genes encoding for the α4 and β2 subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor 0 0 0 2
CONSO00324 FK1 antibody antibody Anti-Ubiquitinylated proteins Antibod 0 0 0 0
CONSO00325 amyloid-beta antibody, NU1 antibody monoclonal antibody that is specific for amyloid-beta oligomers 0 0 0 0
CONSO00326 B-973 chemical Here we report the discovery and characterization of 3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-N-(1-(6-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyrazin-2-yl)ethyl)propanamide (B-973), a piperazine containing α7 type II PAM 0 0 0 2
CONSO00327 GPBC, alpha-7 nAChR domain An alignment of residues in the M3-M4 loop of alpha-7 nAChR that contribute to the binding of G-protein 0 0 0 0
CONSO00328 GPBC, Glycine Receptor 1 domain An alignment of residues in the M3-M4 loop of GPBC, Glycine Receptor 1 (GLRA1) that contribute to the binding of G-protein 0 0 0 0
CONSO00329 N-terminal fragment of ATF6 protein fragment N-terminal fragment of the protein ATF6, generated by cleavage through SP1 and SP2 proteases 0 0 0 0
CONSO00330 misfolded post-translational modification Proteins that are not able to achieve the native state, due either to an unwanted mutation in their amino acid sequence or simply because of an error in the folding process, are recognized as misfolded and subsequently targeted to a degradation pathway 0 0 0 0
CONSO00331 OSW-1 chemical A novel cholestane glycoside called OSW-1 (3b, 16b, 17a-trihydroxycholest-5-en-22-one 16-O-(2-O-4-methoxybenzoyl-bD-xylopyranosyl) - (1?3) -(2-O-acetyl-a-L-arabinopyranoside)) was recently isolated from Ornithogalum saundersiae (Kubo et al., 1992) and has been found to have a potent growth inhibitory activity on a human tumour cell line 0 0 7 5
CONSO00332 EC102 chemical low–molecular weight Hsp90 N-terminal domain inhibitor 0 0 0 0
CONSO00333 KU-177 chemical inhibitor of Aha1 0 0 0 0
CONSO00334 UBB+1 protein variant Ubb+1, a ubiquitin (Ub) mutant protein originating from misreading of the Ub B gene 0 0 0 0
CONSO00335 Phenylthiazolyl-hydrazide chemical inhibitor of tau aggregation and toxicity in vitro and in cells 0 0 0 0
CONSO00336 EEVD motif motif an acidic motif,EEVD, located at the extreme carboxyl terminus of nearly all Hsp7Os which has an essential role in regulating the biochemical properties of Hsp7O and interactions with HDJ-1 0 0 0 0
CONSO00337 Hsp27 oligomers cellular component Hsp27 exists as an ensemble of oligomers,which range in size from dimers to approximately 32 mers or greater 0 0 0 0
CONSO00338 SK and F 77434 chemical a dopamine D1 receptor partial agonist 0 0 0 0
CONSO00339 [125I]-NCQ 298 chemical a new selective iodinated salicylamide ligand for the labelling of dopamine D2 receptors with 125I. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00340 AAV-FKBP1B protein Adeno-associated virus expressing Mouse Fkbp1b. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00341 Proteostasis biological process Regulation of the concentration, folding, interactions, and cellular localization of each of the proteins that comprise the proteome 0 0 0 1
CONSO00342 N-terminal fragment of APP domain Fragment of APP (N-APP) that contains heparin-binding and metal-binding domains and that has been found to have biological activity 0 0 0 1
CONSO00343 polyQ aggregates cellular component Aggregates due to mutations of proteins that lead to polyQ expansions 0 0 0 0
CONSO00344 Q82 aggregates cellular component Aggregates of proteins consisting of polyglutamine stretches with 82 glutamine residues 0 0 0 0
CONSO00345 non-enzymatic protein modification biological process Post-translational protein modifications that were not caused by enzymatic reactions 0 0 0 0
CONSO00346 bb14 chemical Tau aggregation inhibitor bb14 (from the rhodanine class of compounds) 0 0 0 0
CONSO00347 cmp16 chemical Tau aggregation inhibitor 0 0 0 0
CONSO00348 misfolding biological process Proteins that are not able to achieve the native state, due either to an unwanted mutation in their amino acid sequence or simply because of an error in the folding process, are recognized as misfolded and subsequently targeted to a degradation pathway 0 0 0 0
CONSO00349 AG18051 chemical ABAD inhibitor 0 0 0 2
CONSO00350 RM-532-46 chemical ABAD inhibitor 0 0 0 2
CONSO00351 deamidation post-translational modification The removal of an amide group from a peptide's side chain 0 0 0 0
CONSO00352 Mini-Mental Status Exam clinical measurement A standardized and structured interview originally developed by Marshal Folstein, Susan Folstein and Paul McHugh (Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1975), which is used to evaluate an individual's cognitive function. 0 0 5 2
CONSO00353 GLAP chemical glyceraldehyde-derived pyridinium-type advanced glycation end product (AGE), formed by glyceraldehyde-related glycation 0 0 3 2
CONSO00354 Tau 6D isoform In addition to the 3′ splice site at the end of exon 6, there are two alternate 3′ splice sites within exon 6 itself, termed “6P” and “6D” according to location (Fig. 1). Use of either of these splice sites results in a frame shift that introduces a unique amino acid sequence, PCCVPRATFLS (6P) or FWSKGDETQGG (6D), followed by a stop codon. As a result, tau 6P and 6D isoforms are truncated, lacking part of the proline-rich region, the MTBR region, and C-terminus 0 1 0 0
CONSO00355 Tau 6P isoform In addition to the 3′ splice site at the end of exon 6, there are two alternate 3′ splice sites within exon 6 itself, termed “6P” and “6D” according to location (Fig. 1). Use of either of these splice sites results in a frame shift that introduces a unique amino acid sequence, PCCVPRATFLS (6P) or FWSKGDETQGG (6D), followed by a stop codon. As a result, tau 6P and 6D isoforms are truncated, lacking part of the proline-rich region, the MTBR region, and C-terminus 0 1 0 0
CONSO00356 Peripheral Tissue anatomy Parts of the body that act as a response to a change in the environment, the body's functions, molecule levels, etc. 0 0 0 0
CONSO00357 tau polyclonal antibody antibody Antibodies, that are able to bind different epitopes of the tau protein 0 0 0 0
CONSO00358 TDP-43 oligomers cellular component oligomers form during the early steps of TDP-43 misfolding 0 0 0 0
CONSO00359 TDP-43 aggregates cellular component TDP-43 aggregates are formed through a biphasic process that initiates with oligomerization followed by aggregation into high molecular weight polymers 0 0 0 0
CONSO00360 Clonal Expansion pathology Multiplication or reproduction by cell division of a population of identical cells descended from a single progenitor. In immunology, may refer to the clonal proliferation of cells responsive to a specific antigen as part of an immune response. 0 0 0 1
CONSO00361 CDR - Sum of Boxes clinical measurement Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Sum of Boxes 0 0 0 2
CONSO00362 Tau antibody, MC1 antibody mouse monoclonal antibody specific to tau epitopes within 312 to 322 amino acid 0 0 0 1
CONSO00363 DC8E8 antibody recombinant mouse antibody specifc to MAPT 0 1 0 2
CONSO00364 DC11 antibody monoclonal mouse antibody specifc to MAPT 0 0 0 0
CONSO00365 MN423 antibody recombinant mouse antibody binding to PHF core of MAPT 0 1 0 2
CONSO00366 AADvac1 antibody active vaccine eliciting an immune response against pathologically modified forms of tau protein 0 0 0 1
CONSO00367 RGFP136 chemical HDAC3 inhibitor 0 1 2 3
CONSO00368 HDAC3 inhibitor chemical role Compounds that inhibit Histone Deactelylase 3(HDAC-3) 1 0 0 0
CONSO00369 chemofog pathology Long-term chemotherapy-induced cognitive decline in cancer survivors 0 0 4 0